The Doctrine of Privity of Contract

Privity of Contract: A Historical Perspective
Privity of Contract in Indian Law
Exceptions to the Doctrine of Privity of Contract


The doctrine of privity of contract, a longstanding principle in both English and Indian contract law, has faced criticism for its rigid stance on who can enforce a contract. Originally, this doctrine dictated that only parties to a contract had the right to sue each other to enforce its terms, effectively barring third parties from pursuing claims.

However, as the legal landscape has evolved, exceptions to this doctrine have emerged, allowing third parties to enforce contracts under specific circumstances. This post explores the doctrine of privity of contract, its historical development, and the exceptions that have been established to strike a balance between legal rigidity and fairness in contractual relationships.

Privity of Contract: A Historical Perspective

The doctrine of privity of contract, deeply rooted in English common law, established the principle that only the parties directly involved in a contract had the legal standing to enforce its terms. This strict interpretation of privity had far-reaching consequences and often left third parties without recourse, even when they were intended beneficiaries of the contract.

Tweddle v. Atkinson

The doctrine’s rigidity was evident in the case of Tweddle v. Atkinson, where Tweddle’s father-in-law and Atkinson entered into a contract to provide financial support for Tweddle and his wife. After Atkinson’s death without fulfilling his obligations, Tweddle attempted to sue Atkinson’s estate for breach.

However, the court denied his claim, emphasizing the absence of consideration from Tweddle’s father-in-law to Atkinson and the fact that Tweddle was not a party to the contract. This case set a precedent for the strict application of privity of contract, even in cases involving intended beneficiaries.

Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd v. Selfridge & Co (1915)

The doctrine of privity began to evolve in the case of Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd v. Selfridge & Co, a landmark ruling that marked a departure from its rigid application. Dunlop, a tire manufacturer, entered into agreements with its dealers, including Dew & Co., to maintain a resale price for its products.

Dunlop also required dealers to obtain similar undertakings from their retailers, including Selfridge. When Selfridge sold tires below the agreed price, Dunlop sued for breach of contract.

On appeal, Selfridge argued that Dunlop could not enforce the contract’s burden against it because it had not consented to the contract between Dunlop and Dew. The court ruled in favor of Selfridge, emphasizing that Selfridge was neither a principal nor an agent and therefore was not bound by the contract between Dunlop and Dew. This case hinted at exceptions to privity when justice and equity demanded.

Privity of Contract in Indian Law

Indian contract law initially mirrored English law’s strict adherence to the doctrine of privity of contract. It firmly asserted that only parties directly involved in a contract could enforce its terms. The Privy Council’s decision in Jamna Das v. Ram Avtar reaffirmed this principle, exemplifying the strict application of privity.

Jamna Das v. Ram Avtar: A Stricter Application in India

In this case, A borrowed money by mortgaging her property to B and subsequently sold the property to C, with the intent to redeem the mortgage if needed. When B sued C for the recovery of the mortgage money, C’s defense relied on the privity of contract rule. The Privy Council ruled in favor of B, asserting that C, the purchaser, had entered into no contract with B and, therefore, was not personally obligated to pay the mortgage debt. This case exemplified the strict adherence to the privity of contract doctrine in Indian law.

Exceptions to the Doctrine of Privity of Contract

Recognizing the injustices that could result from the strict application of the doctrine, exceptions have evolved in both English and Indian contract law. These exceptions ensure that third parties are not left without legal recourse when fairness and justice demand their involvement.

Beneficiary Under a Contract

One of the most significant exceptions to privity of contract is the recognition of beneficiaries under a contract. When a contract explicitly intends to benefit a third party who is not a signatory to the contract, that third party may enforce the contract’s provisions. This exception aligns with the intentions of the contracting parties and ensures that beneficiaries are not left without legal recourse.

For example, if Party A and Party B enter into a contract explicitly stating it benefits Party C, who is not a party to the contract, Party C has the legal standing to initiate legal proceedings to enforce the contract if either Party A or Party B fails to fulfill their contractual obligations. This exception promotes fairness and upholds the underlying purposes of the contract.

Conduct, Acknowledgment, or Admission

Another exception arises when one of the parties, through their actions, representations, or acknowledgments, recognizes the rights of a third party. In such cases, the third party may have a legal basis for bringing a claim based on the principles of promissory estoppel.

This exception emphasizes the importance of honoring promises and assurances made by the parties, even if a third party is not a direct party to the contract. It prevents parties from reneging on their commitments when a third party has reasonably relied on those commitments to their detriment.

For instance, if Party A enters into a contract with Party B and subsequently represents to Party C that Party C will also benefit from the contract, Party C may have a valid legal claim against Party A for breach of promise if Party A fails to fulfill the representation.

Provision for Maintenance or Marriage

Contracts that include provisions related to maintenance or marriage represent an exception to the doctrine of privity of contract. Under these circumstances, third parties who are not directly involved in the contract but have a vested interest in its performance may enforce the contract.

For example, if Party A promises to provide financial support to Party B for their lifetime, with the condition that Party C, a third party, also receives a specified amount, Party C can initiate legal proceedings against Party A if Party A breaches the agreement. This exception recognizes that certain contracts have far-reaching consequences beyond the immediate parties involved and seeks to protect the interests of those indirectly affected by the contract.

Family Settlement

Contracts created as part of a family settlement may permit third parties to enforce the contract if they are intended beneficiaries. Family settlements often involve complex arrangements designed to benefit various family members, and enforcing such contracts aligns with the family’s intentions and equitable considerations.

For instance, if a family agreement stipulates that three sons will each contribute a specific amount to a daughter’s financial security, and one son fails to fulfill his obligation, the daughter may have a valid legal claim against the defaulting son. This exception upholds the principles of fairness and family intentions within the context of contractual relationships.


Promissory estoppel principles provide another basis for third parties to seek relief against a promisor. To establish a claim based on promissory estoppel, the third party must demonstrate elements such as a clear promise, reasonable reliance on that promise, and detriment suffered due to the reliance.

This exception underscores the significance of maintaining the integrity of promises and ensuring that parties are held accountable for their commitments, even when third parties are involved.

For example, if Party A makes a clear promise to Party B that Party C will receive a specific sum of money, and Party B reasonably relies on this promise to their detriment, Party C may have a valid legal claim against Party A for promissory estoppel.


In conclusion, the doctrine of privity of contract has undergone significant transformation over the years, moving from a rigid, exclusionary principle to one that accommodates exceptions when justice, equity, and fairness demand. These exceptions reflect the adaptability and responsiveness of legal systems to the complexities of contemporary transactions and societal expectations.

The exceptions discussed in this post highlight the increasing emphasis on achieving fairness and justice in contractual relationships. By allowing beneficiaries, third parties with equitable claims, and those who have reasonably relied on promises to enforce contracts, the law strives to strike a balance between legal rigidity and fairness.

The doctrine of privity of contract remains a fundamental principle in contract law, but its strict application has been tempered by exceptions that accommodate the evolving needs of modern society. These exceptions provide legal avenues for third parties to enforce contracts when justice and fairness demand it, aligning contract law with the dynamic realities of business and society.

In summary, the doctrine of privity of contract reflects the adaptability of legal systems in addressing the complexities of contractual relationships while upholding the principles of trust, reliance, and accountability. As such, it continues to evolve, ensuring that fairness and justice prevail in the ever-changing landscape of contract law.